Sea Waters Pollution

Main ecological problems of sea waters

✔oil pollution;
✔ accumulation of solid waste and debris;
✔ waste water from the factories and pollution from rivers;
✔ Algal bloom due to water pollution.

Main sources of pollution

✔industrial waste;
✔ household waste water;
✔ agricultural waste;
✔ accidental oil spills.
Extensive blooms (i.e. red tides) cause severe environmental and economic impacts and disrupt the workflow of desalination plants. Rapid reproduction of phytoplankton (eutrophication) violates light penetration and, as a consequence, leads to a lack of oxygen in the water, posing a severe threat to the inhabitants of sea waters.

Kraftfilter’s solution

The technology of reagent-free treatment of seawater is implemented for the purpose of its desalination and purification from pollutants

Electrocoagulation unit with polyelectrode reactor

Equipped with special non-passivable non-consumable electrodes based on coated carbon composites, the desalination system provides purified drinking water output. Due to various coating materials for different groups of electrodes, in addition to direct electrolytic reactions, some reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced, in particular, hydroxyl radicals, hydronium, as well as peracetic and hypochlorous acids, which enter into active reactions, neutralizing salts, metals and organics, disinfecting water. There is no formation of chlorine gas and free hydrogen. Salts and minerals are sedimented to an insoluble crystalline sediment.

Macrofiltration and final treatment units

✔ Removal of all suspended solids after the electrocoagulation unit, including removal of turbidity, partly color and odor.
✔ The pressure does not exceed 12 atm.
✔ Retentate with a low salt content in comparison with the original seawater
(10–20% of the total amount of the treated liquid) is fed to the inlet of the electrocoagulation unit, diluting the incoming seawater stream.

Comparison of seawater desalination technologies

Multi-Stage Flash MSF
Multi-effect desalination MED
Reverse osmosis system SWRO
Waste generation
brine in the amount of about 30% of the incoming stream for desalination
✔solid free-flowing sediment with neutral characteristics